is of concern to everyone. Of the 326 million cubic miles of water on
earth, only about three percent of it is fresh water; and three quarters
of that three percent is frozen. The remaining fresh water, less than
one percent, is found either underground or above ground in lakes and
streams. It is critical that this limited amount of water remains of quality.
When one considers that the average human is about seventy percent water
and can only survive five or less days without quality water, it is clear
that water quality should be of concern to all.
The water quality and environmental implications of ATIs
contaminant lock technology are considerable. Testing under the EPAs
TCLP and LC-50 regimens has confirmed that the saturated product will
not leach the adsorbed constituents. ET-1 captures these hazardous liquid
contaminants inside a non-hazardous, stable solid that meets these stringent
federal guidelines for storage, transportation and disposal.
Aqua Technologies of Wyoming is committed to ongoing research
and finds promise in the possibility of bio-regeneration of spent ET-1.
Gas Research Institute in 1995 developed cost thresholds for beneficial
use of produced water as an alternative to underground injection. Economic
thresholds were approximately $0.20 per barrel for de-oiling (free hydrocarbon
removal) only, $0.25 for de-oiling and removal of dissolved organics,
and $0.75 to $1.00 for de-oiling, removal of dissolved organics, and partial
desalination. Also reported was a treatment cost for granular activated
carbon of approximately $0.48 per barrel. Operating data demonstrates
that the cost of produced water treatment by Aqua Technologies ET-1 with
granular activated carbon is well below these costs.
Disposal of generated byproduct is also a serious economic
concern. Since ET-1 adsorbs contaminants, no byproduct is produced. As
mentioned previously ET-1 adsorbtion
is so tight that Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
tests have been conducted on spent ET-1 organoclay media and the results
suggest that spent media may be a non-hazardous waste. This determination
allows the possibility of economical disposal options including landfilling
ET-1 is a organoclay
media with a life cycle far beyond that capable of granular activated
carbon. During one of our case studies granular
activated carbon required replacement after only three weeks, while
ET-1 lasted as long as 11 months. Life of the media will of course vary
in accordance with water production rate and contaminant content. We suggest
that the following parameters be used in an economic evaluation:
- A conservative loading factor of 50% by weight, or 0.5mg hydrocarbon
removed per mg of organoclay.
- Product cost of US $3.00 per pound. ($0.0066 per gram)
When these parameters are combined in the following formula,
we arrive at a media cost of approximately $0.0021 per mg/L of hydrocarbon
removed per barrel of water:
At Aqua Technologies of Wyoming, we understand that treatment
is a cost center for industry, and we are committed to solutions that
minimize costs, to help you maximize profits. An ET-1 filtration
system will process significantly more than a carbon-only system before
breakthrough occurs. This higher loading capacity means less frequent
filter changes, saving downtime and labor expenses. The net result is
substantially lower operating costs, making ET-1 the right choice for
your bottom line.