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ET-1 Activated Clay - FAQ

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Follow the links below to find answers for Frequently Asked Questions about Aqua Technologies unique product, ET-1.

What is ET-1 Activated Clay?
ET-1 Activated Clay is a granular adsorbent material that can be used to remove oil, grease, petroleum hydrocarbons and other organic compounds from wastewater. It is commonly used with a subsequent stage of granular activated carbon to provide high-quality wastewater treatment. ET-1 Activated Clay is manufactured from sodium bentonite clay that is chemically modified to make it hydrophobic (water repelling) and organophilic (oil attracting). The specific formulation is proprietary.

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How does it work?
It is normally manufactured as a granular material to be used in still-bed adsorption vessels. It removes hydrocarbon contaminants by adsorption as the wastewater passes through the media-filled vessels.

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What are its indicated uses?
ET-1 Activated Clay is most effective on petroleum oils including crude oil, petroleum lubricants, and fuels including the petroleum portions of gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil. These contaminants are commonly identified in wastewater discharge permits by the EPA as standard Oil & Grease or Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon. The usage of ET-1 Activated Clay to remove specific organic compounds from wastewater other than generic Oil and Grease or Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

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What uses are not recommended?
ET-1 Activated Clay is not recommended for use in streams containing high amounts of synthetic lubricants or streams containing a high concentration of surfactants or soaps. Contact us at (888)-456-0008 for stream-specific usage recommendations.

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How well does it work?
When ET-1 Activated Clay is used according to recommendations, it is able to remove EPA Oil and Grease or Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons to concentrations near or below detection limits. This removal efficiency has been documented in influent concentrations from 10 mg./L to 200,000 mg./L hydrocarbons. It virtually assures the facility owner that wastewater will meet discharge permit requirements for these two standards.

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What are the physical properties of ET-1 Activated Clay?
- Bulk Density 42 to 50 lbs. per cubic foot depending on grain size.
- Loading Factor (Design) 0.5 gm. Hydrocarbon per gram ET-1
- Loading Factor (Ultimate) 0.7 gm. Hydrocarbon per gram ET-1
- Hydraulic Conductivity (Pressure Drop Through Media Bed) T.B.D.
- Compressive Strength (Crush Resistance) T.B.D.

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What is the recommended contact time?
Each vessel should allow a minimum of 3 minutes of contact time between the adsorbent medium and the wastewater. For those persons with a background in granular activated carbon treatment, the recommended contact time is equivalent to an Hourly Space Velocity (H.S.V.) of 5.5, which will be relatively high in their experience. H.S.V. is defined as the flow rate equivalent to the number of vessel volumes per hour.

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What are the recommended vessel dimensions?
The vessel volume required to achieve a 3-minute contact time is calculated by multiplying the wastewater flow rate (volume per minute) by 60. This calculation assumes a 33% porosity (water filled volume) within the bulk medium. [If the H.S.V. is used, the required vessel volume will be flow rate (volume per hour) divided by 5.5.] - (Note: 1)

The diameter of a cylindrical vessel is calculated to provide a recommended superficial flow rate through the medium of 2 g.p.m. per square-foot of area. - (Note: 2)

The height of a cylindrical vessel is calculated by dividing the required volume by the cross-sectional area.

Note 1: In actual practice, one should follow published sizes.
Note 2: Exceeding the recommended superficial flow rate through a vessel can create excessive pressure drop in down-flow vessels. In upflow vessels, a higher flow rate can cause media upset and abrasion due to turbulent flow.

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How should I prepare the media?
The ET-1 Activated Clay should be wetted before use. Wetting allows water to be drawn into the pores of each grain by capillary action and prepares the clay surfaces to adsorb contaminants. One acceptable method is spraying water into the vessel with a hose as the ET-1 Activated Clay is poured in. The water helps consolidate the media bed and helps prevent channeling. It also flushes fines that may have been generated during shipping and handling. Sixty minutes will permit the media to adequately saturate.

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What limits should be observed for proper usage of ET-1?
Wastewater temperature must be kept below 140º F.

The pH should be kept between 6.0 and 8.0 in order to reduce the tendency of dispersed oil to form stable emulsions. (Note: pH range does not affect the media but can affect ability of the waste stream to allow oils to naturally separate from the water.)

Wastewater Salinity: ET-1 is not affected by salinity.

Wastewater must not contain high concentrations (approximately >25ppm) of free oxidizers including chlorine gas, hypoclorite, peroxide, or permanganate because they will possibly degrade the ET-1 Activated Clay.

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What are my disposal options?
ET-1 should be handled and disposed of in accordance with the laws of the state in which it is used and all applicable federal law. Should you need assistance in finding proper disposal options, contact our manufacturing division at 800-839-0565. We will be glad to help.

Depending on the nature of the contaminant and local regulations, spent ET-1 may be classified as a non-hazardous solid waste. If lab results confirm this determination, the spent material might be landfilled, landfarmed, composted, or used as a granular material fill.

Depending on the fuel value of the material adsorbed by the product, spent ET-1 may also be blended into boiler fuel for energy recovery.

ET-1 cannot be thermally regenerated in the manner of activated carbon, but methods of bio-remediation are being investigated.

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Are there alternative treatment processes?
Some contaminants that resist adsorption by the still-bed method can be removed in a high-shear process. This process is designed to treat compound waste streams that contain a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. This method includes mixing fine (40-100 mesh) ET-1 with the water as well as other materials. The exact materials and steps used in the process are proprietary and will be revealed on a case by case basis.

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Are there any non-wastewater uses for ET-1?
ET-1 is an excellent adsorbent for spills of petroleum lubricants and fuels. The product can also be used as a tool and parts cleaner. Other commercial clay products marketed for this purpose are absorbents (absorption works like a sponge) that can release the contaminants.

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Is ET-1 safe for my employees to handle and use?
ET-1 is very safe to handle and use. Its use requires only that some precautions be used as would be required when handling other potential dust producing materials. Please refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet for ET-1.

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